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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

 

Study Material

 

•Latin word ‘communicare’ – to impart,to share or to make common(shared by all).

•We share ‘information’.

•“Communication is essentially the ability of one person to make contact with another and to make himself or herself understood.Or if you prefer a slightly more formal version,communication is the process by which meanings are exchanged between people through the use of a common set of symbols.”- John Adair

 

 

Communication –definition

Importance and purpose of communication

Dimensions of communications

Channels of communications – formal and informal communications

Patterns of communications

 

MEANS/MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION

Media of Communication

         * Verbal:  1.Oral

                                   2.Written

         * Non verbal: 1.Sign language : a)Visual signs

                                                         b) Audio signs

                                           2.Body language

Factors regarding the use of words

   a) The location of meaning in the mind

   b) Denotatives vs connotative meaning

   c)Context

 

Verbal Communication- Oral

 

Oral Communication :

  * Formal: presentations, meetings,group-  

                 discussions,interviews,letters, reports.

  * Informal-

          a) face to face - gossip

          b) phatic communication- small talk that   

              breaks the ice

 

Advantages of Oral Communication

Provides immediate feedback

Builds healthy climate

Is a time-saving device

Lends personal touch

Very economical

Ample scope for immediate clarifications

 

Disadvantages of Oral Communication

Waste of time & money

Not always very effective

No records for future reference

No legal validity

Can lead to misunderstanding

If lengthy, may lose some vital component

Difficult to assign responsibility

 

Ten Commandments of Listening

 

•Stop talking

•Put the talker at ease

•Show the talker that you want to listen

•Remove distraction

•Empathize with the talker

•Be patient

•Hold your temper

•Go easy on argument & criticism

•Ask questions

•Stop talking

 

Communication-Written

 

 Features:

      1) Is a creative activity

      2) Time factor involved is more

      3) Has fewer cycles

 

Advantages of Written Communication

Provides records,references,etc.

Builds up legal defenses

Promotes uniformity in policy & procedure

Gives access to a large audience through mass mailing

Builds up the organization’s image

Is accurate & unambiguous

Is permanent

Facilitates proper assignation of responsibilities

 

 

Disadvantages of Written Communication

Creates clutter

Maybe ineffective for poor communicators

No immediate feedback

Costly process

Takes up more man-hours

Immediate clarifications not possible

 

 NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Different aspects of communication:

             Verbal communication: 7%

              Gestures : 55%

              Voice tone : 38%

Non verbal communication: body movements, space, time, voice tone/pitch, environment, audio & visual signs,etc.

 

BODY LANGUAGE

Facial expressions

Eye contact

Gestures

Head, Body shape & Posture

Appearance

 

Effective use of Body Language

Body talk

Handshake

Eye contact

Level of listener

Be yourself

Graceful movement & confident posture

 

Advantages of Body Language

Easily visible

Complements verbal communication

Adds intensity to the process of communication

Improves the overall atmosphere

 

Limitations of Body Language

Cannot be wholly relied on

Liable to be misinterpreted

May become ineffective

Not very effective for large gatherings

 


PARALANGUAGE

   Paralanguage  – ‘like’ language : the way a speaker verbalizes – how the speaker’s voice sounds or the way the speaker speaks

Voice : a) Pitch variation

                 b) Speaking speed

                 c) Pause

                 d) Nonfluencies

                 e) Volume variation

    

Proxemics/Space language, time language & surroundings

 

Proxemics – the study of how we communicate with:

        a)  the space around us

        b) the importance we attach to time

        c) the importance of physical 

            environment

 

Proxemics – Space language

Outermost – Public Space Language(12 feet)

2nd – Social Space Language(4 to 12 feet)

3rd – Personal Space Language(18 in to 4 ft)

Innermost –Intimate Space Language(touch)

Paralanguage – Others

Time language : Punctuality

 

Surroundings : 1) Color

                            2) Layout & design

 

Non Verbal Communication


 Sign Language- Visual elements

 ‘A picture is worth a thousand words’ because we take much of our information – more than 50% - through the gateway of our eyes. (Adair)

   eg.Paintings,scrawlings, murals, engravings, posters,cartoons,caricatures,statues, effigies, maps,diagrams,photographs,signs,symbols.

 Non Verbal Communication-
 Sign Language- Audio elements

 Audio or sound signals have been in use since the very beginning of civilization.

   eg. Drumbeats,alarm signals(fire alarms, accident/casualty alarm,air raid/assault alarm,VIP  motorcade alarms,machine breakdown alarm,watch alarm),

    sirens,hooters,whistlers,horn,buzzers,

   pressbutton bells,

 

Culture & Communication

 

‘Communication is the understanding,not of the visible,but of the invisible and hidden. These hidden and symbolic elements embedded in the culture give meaning to the visible communication process.’- Fred Luthans 

Globalization

Not ‘melting pot’ but ‘salad bowl’

 

IMPLICATION OF CULTURE ON COMMUNICATION

Verbal communication:

            1) politeness vs straightforwardness

            2) formality vs informality

Non verbal communication:

            1) spatial difference

            2) dress sense

            3) gestures,postures,rituals 

 

FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION

Information

Control

Motivation

Emotional expression & interdependence

 

Conflict and Negotiation

Conflict: serious disagreement and argument about something important.

 Ingredients:1) disagreement

                           2) argument

                           3) clash of goals, interest,etc.

                           4) difficulty in making a decision

                           5) inadequate or poor communication

                           6) incompatible personalities

Negotiation

Negotiation: a process by which two parties interact to resolve a conflict jointly.

   Features: 1) Minimum 2 parties  required

                          2) Predetermined goals

                          3) Goals may not be shared

                          4) An expected outcome

                          5) Belief in satisfactory outcome

                          6) Willingness to modify position

                          7) Incompatibility may hinder to modify position

                          8) Need to understand purpose

 

Factors important to successful negotiation

Factors: 1) own interest dependent on other

                    2) extent of trust or distrust

                    3) the personalities involved

                    4) goals & interests of the parties

                    5) ability of the parties to communicate 

                        & persuade

Structure of negotiation process

•Negotiation is a four stage process:   

       1. Opening

       2.  Exchange of Information

       3.  Change of Position

       4.  Closing

•Language of a typical bargaining negotiation:

       1. Opening  2.Exchange  3. First Price  4. Planning

       5.Discussion of products 6. Bargain      7. Prices                     

       8. Preclose  9. Close 

 

Functional / Linguistic content of Negotiation

‘ Certain functions(content) in negotiation are, systematically accomplished by certain ways of speaking(structure)’- Joyce

    Five factors of negotiation process:

        i)   Information

        ii)  Interaction

        iii) Metatalk

        iv) Concession

        v)  Agreement

 

GROUP DECISION MAKING

Discuss – derived from Latin word ‘discutere’ – ‘to shake’ or ‘strike’ (theme/ subject/matter is thoroughly shaken, inquired or examined so as to reach a conclusion or decide upon a course action.

Ingredients:

   1) Three P’s- Purpose,Planning and Participation

   2)  Leadership

   3)  Informality

‘Two heads are better than one’

 

Techniques of Group Decision Making

Committees & Committee Meetings

Command Meetings – ‘Groupthink’ & ‘Groupshift’

Brain-storming Sessions

Nominal Group Technique

Delphi Technique

 

Presentations & Interviews

 

Presentation – ‘public speaking’; purpose is defined more precisely & more concretely

Occasions: 1) launch of new product / service

                                   2) start of a training course / session

                                   3) presenting a new business plan

                                   4) making a proposal for marketing & sales

                                   5) attending conference or seminar

                                   6) diversifying business

 

STEPS FOR SUCCESSFUL PRESENTATION

•Be clear about the occasion

•Make audience analysis

•Visit the location for an idea

•Plan out the presentation

•Decide the method of presentation

•Rehearse the presentation

•Consider personal aspects

•Overcome nervousness

•Use audio visual aids effectively

 

INTERVIEW : ‘entre vior’(French)
            - to glimpse

Interview: A meeting for obtaining information by questioning a person.

Features:a) At least 2 participants

                        b)  A definite purpose known to both parties

                        c) Adequate preparation by both parties

                        d) Always prearranged

                        e) A clear exchange of information

Structure of an Interview

Opening

Middle / Main Body 

Closing

 

Guidelines for the Interviewee

 

•Be prepared for the interview

•Have a presentable appearance

•Show interest through body language

•Answer questions correctly & completely

•NEVER try to give false information

•Be polite

•Avoid criticism

•Thank the interviewer

•Don’t hesitate to ask questions

 

SPEECHES- PREPARED vs IMPROMPTU

“Speech is power; speech is to persuade, to convert , to compel.” – Emerson

 

Guidelines for preparing a speech:

The six cardinal questions

Be clear and organized

Be simple

Furnish concrete details

Cultivate effortless grace and naturalness

Enrich your mental equipment

Be brief

Be formal

Be enthusiastic

Mind your non-verbal language

Be imaginative,just don’t use facts and figures only

Control your emotions

Share your expertise with the audience

 

ADVERTISING

Latin word ‘advetere’ meaning advert (to turn or pay attention to)

Advertise : ‘to describe or present(a product,organization,idea,etc.)in some medium of communication in order to induce the public to buy,support,or approve of it’.

 

KINDS OF ADVERTISEMENT

Informative advertisement-to educate consumers by giving them information about goods and services available

Persuasive and competitive advertisement-to persuade consumers to buy one particular manufacturer’s brand of a commodity rather than competitor’s.

Institutional or Reputation advertising- aims to project the image of an organization.

Salient features of Institutional Advertising

A forceful title

An introduction to the organization

Highlights the achievements of the organization

States the organization’s commitment to public

Attractive layout

Repeated emphasis on the brand/name of the organization

 

Basic Elements of an advertisement copy

Audience exposure

Audience desire

Audience message

Audience resolve to act

 

Barriers and Breakdown in Communication

 

Breakdown can arise at the following levels:

•The sender’s level in

             i) formulating thought/idea/message

                  ii) encoding the message

•The receiver’s level in

             i) receiving the message

                 ii) decoding the message

                 iii) understanding/ interpreting the message

•Transmission level – NOISE

•Feedback/ reaction level

Other barriers of communication

Lack of planning

Wrong/ unclarified assumptions

Sematic problems

Cultural barriers

Socio-psychological barriers

Emotions

Selective perception

Filtering

Information overload

Loss by transmission

Poor retention

Poor listening

Insufficient period for adjustment

Goal-conflicts

Offensive style of communication

 

 

Guidelines for Effective Communication

Clarity of Purpose

Shared Activity

Common Set of Symbols

Focus on needs of the receiver

Use Feedback

Active Listening

Controlling emotions

Politeness

Eliminate noise

Clarify assumptions

Avoid connotations & ambiguities

Socio-psychological aspect

Completeness

Conciseness

Proper use of body language

 

 

Essentials of Effective Correspondence

 

Simplicity

Conversational style

Clarity of goal

Public relations aspect

You-attitude

Courtesy

Persuasion

Sincerity

Positive language

Due emphasis

Coherence

Care for culture

Tactful approach

Ethical standard

 

The layout of a Business Letter

 

The Business Letter is a vital tool of business correspondence.

It is basically the ‘Image Carrier’ / ‘Image Builder’ and hence should be carefully prepared.

The quality of stationary, arrangement of printed matter, the envelope,stamp & seal - all convey the image & attitude of the organization.

Businesses might be expanded proficiently or simply be lost using this important tool.

Format of a Business Letter

Heading

Reference number

Date

Inside address

Attention line

Salutation

Subject line

Body of the letter

Formal close

Signature block / slot

Enclosure

Postscript

CC / Carbon copy notation

Reference initials

Planning the letter

Steps to plan the letter:

•Determine the main aim of writing the letter (what & how clearly do we want to convey?

•Assess if any secondary aim can be accomplished

•Assemble all relevant information

•Arrange the points in order of importance

•Assess the reaction of the receiver

•Assess how to improve the situation through the letter

 

 

The three approaches

Direct approach

Indirect approach

Middle ground or persuasive approach

 

Types of letters

Information letter

Good news letter

Direct request letter

Persuasive letter

 

Salient aspects of the structure of a business letter

An attention getting opening

Introduction of the central idea

Present convincing information

Clarify action that needs to be taken

 

Kinds of Business Letters

Information letters

     1) Routine-(enquiries, quotations, orders, payment)

     2) Special purpose(circulars, personnel, agencies, travel)

Sales letters(voluntary offers, traveler’s employment)

Problem letters(complaint, concessions,overdue, accounts)

Goodwill letters (greetings,thanks, congratulations, sympathy)

 

 

Enquiries & Replies

Information seeking letters providing some information about the writer

A direct approach letter

Opening sets the tone of urgency

Close of the letter conveys writer’s expectations for a quick response

 

Placing and Fulfilling Orders

•These letters are a result of enquiries & their replies

•May not always contain details about the product if it is a routine buyer

•An order from is used &  a cover letter is sent along with

 

Complaints & Follow-up letters

Written to convey dissatisfaction regarding damaged or poor quality of product, delay in supplying, wrong invoicing, poor after-sales service, etc

Guidelines for drafting complaints pg 344

Guidelines for drafting replies to complaints pg 345

 

Status Enquiries

Written to check on a customer’s credit rating/worthiness (amount which a credit agency feels a customer should be allowed to borrow)

Such correspondence should be treated in strict confidence

 

 

Collection Letters

Written to collect payments due from customers

Should be tackled with utmost care & cordiality

Procedure:

        1. 3 Mild reminders (will pay stage)

        2. 4 Persuasive letters (should pay stage)

        3. 3 Last resort letters (must pay stage)

 

Sales Letters or Offers

The primary aim of such a letter is publicity or to reach out to a large number of people interested in a particular product/ service & turn them into buyers

Since these are unsolicited, they have to be persuasive or powerful enough to make the recipient act, thus are Indirect Approach letters

 

Goodwill Letters , Greetings, etc.

These letters help retain customers after they have been won over

Aims at building up cordial and good relations, uphold the company image & establish positive human relations

Recent changes have been witnessed wherein ‘Greeting cards’ for the occasion are now being used.

 

Circular Letters

Also called ‘Memorandum’; are unsolicited & addressed to a number of persons or intended for general circulation; Should have mass appeal

An information giving letter, so needs careful planning; should be simple & precise

Since it is unsolicited, it has to be persuasive, tactful & convincing

Should have all features of an Indirect Approach letter

APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT

You need Resume & Application Letter to apply for a job

An Application Letter is

       1)  like a Sales letter

       2) It should be persuasive in approach & should induce action from the recipient

       3) Can be Solicited or Unsolicited

 

Format of Applications for employment

  Application for employment could be divided into categories as follows:

•Application letter or letter-style application

•Application enumerating the particulars of the applicant’s qualifications

•Applications in the form of a covering letter accompanying a resume

•Application on a prescribed form

 

The Curriculum Vitae / Re’sume’

The following details should be included:

Personal particulars

Academic qualifications

Additional qualifications

Experience- in the Functional or Chronological order

Additional information- about languages known, hobbies, etc

References

 

Other employment related correspondence

•Letter calling a candidate for written test

•Letter calling a candidate for interview

•Thank you letter following the interview

•Follow-up letters to an application

•Employer to referee   

•Letter of appointment

•Job acceptance / consent letter

•Job refusal letter

•Letter informing non- selection

 

Memoranda

Derived from Latin word ‘memorare’ meaning ‘to mention’ or ‘tell’

Definition: ‘a written statement that you prepare specially for a person or committee in order to give them information about a particular matter.’  OR

   ‘ a short official note that you write to a person or to several people, especially people who you work with.’

  

Notices, Circulars and Orders

These are other important forms of communication within an organization.

Notices: These are generally pinned on notice boards & are a popular & effective way of reaching out to the general staff.May require the signature of staff.

Circulars: These are a more formal nature of communication meant to bring to the notice of a certain audience matters of importance to the organization.

Orders:These are issued by superiors & communicate matters relating to certain rights,withdrawing rights,imposing restrictions,making postings/transfers,promotions,retrenchment, annual increments, disciplinary actions,etc.

 

 

Agenda & Minutes

For organizing a meeting , a definite schedule is followed:

•Circular: a circular is sent to all who need to attend the meeting , inviting points they would want to be discussed.

•Agenda: Is prepared by the secretary , & includes points sent by all; is normally distributed to all concerned before the meeting

•Minutes of the meeting:is recorded by the secretary & includes all important decisions made at the meeting. It is confirmed at the next meeting & sent as records.

•Since these are important records of meetings where policy decisions are made, these need to be recorded with accuracy.

•Care should be taken to cut out all irrelevant information & report only important decisions.

•Minutes should be recorded in the indirect speech and past tense.

 

 

Report Writing - 1

Report: A report is a statement describing what has happened.

It is written in a clear , informative way, often drawing conclusions, making recommendations  & suggesting course of action.

Types of reports:

Letter-style report:It covers mainly one topic, which is often unsolicited and which is used to make requests , pass necessary information, suggest actions, or bring some matter to the attention of other members of the staff.

Schematic report:It deals with a number of related topics, is usually requested by a senior management executive , and is presented in a particular format under specific headings.

Technique of report writing

Depending on the subject matter, a report may be written either in the logical sequence or chronological order.

Guidelines for writing a report:

Assemble the material

Plan the report

Draft the report

Edit the report

 

Format of Reports

Letter style report:

Is usually written on the company letter-head

Is used for internal communication

Carries no salutation but only a signature

 

 

Schematic report:

Terms of reference

Action taken

Findings

Conclusions

Recommendations

 

Report-Writing - 2

Market Survey Report can be :

Routine vs Special reports

Informative vs Interpretive reports

Individual vs Committee reports

Written vs Oral reports

Formal vs Informal reports

Solicited vs Unsolicited reports

 

Guidelines for writing a market survey report:

Should be written very carefully after a serious study of the position of the product.

Should begin with references to the letter asking for the report

The terms of reference must be stated

Should include the work done & the methodology adopted

Should clearly state the causes for the situation at that period

Should include constructive suggestions for improvement of the situation

Should present all facts in a clear & unclouded perspective without any biases

Should be accompanied by a covering letter or letter of transmittal

 

PROPOSAL WRITING

 

A proposal is a persuasive offer to complete a task, submitted either voluntarily or in response to a request or an advertisement.

It is like a report and can be short or long but unlike a report, it may be sent to an expert or a review committee for evaluation and recommendation concerning the benefits of the proposed services, products, etc.

 

TYPES OF PROPOSALS

RESEARCH PROPOSALS

BUSINESS PROPOSALS- consists of

     a) a letter of transmittal or prefatory note- it  

         follows the AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, 

         Action) formula of effective sales  

          communication.

       b) body of proposal with information on

            project team(if necessary), scope of 

            services, cost of equipment, etc.

         

Press Releases & Notices

 

Press releases are prepared to convey and inform some important information publicly through the newspaper.

Guidelines to prepare an effective press release:

•Substantial information       e) Company image

•Clarity                                  f) Suitable heading

•Brevity                                 g) Formatting

•Appropriate

 

Press / Public Notices

A press / public notice is an announcement giving important information to all concerned.

The key points of a press/public are:

•Suitable heading

•Brevity

•Necessary details

•Justification of action taken/expected

 

Technology of Business Communication

Business and Communication have always been going on together as they have a symbolic relationship.

The ingredients of communication have remained the same but what has changed are the means/ media/technology of the transmission of message/ information and feedback between the sender and the receiver during the last hundred years.

The Three ‘Waves’

First Wave or agrarian societies communication passed mouth-to-ear & face-to-face with small groups.

Second Wave gave rise to post offices, telegraphs,  telephones,newspaper,magazines,movies,radio and television.

Third Wave reflects the need of the emerging post-mass-production economy.

 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Facilities available:

Cellular phones

Pagers

Video conferencing

FAX ( Facsimile)

Electronic mail

Intelligent Networks

Satellite Communication

Citizen Band Radio

Electronic Bulletin Board

Electric revolution

MIS – Management Information Systems – the term is used when information technology is applied to the communication process in organizations.

 

Telegram, Telex, FAX Messages and Electronic Mail

These are quick and cheap means of sending messages developed over the years.

Telegram: Short & precise message sent through post offices.

Telex: Lengthy messages could be sent using the teleprinting machines.

FAX: Same message is copied to recipient

Internet & Electronic mail: Instant communication – Uses Information sharing

Sending and receiving messages

Advertising

Marketing

Instantaneous Personal Communication

 

INTERNET & E-COMMERCE

Internet : Short form of INTER connected NET works. It is a collection of computer networks,tens of thousands of computers and millions of users,all connected to make the world’s largest network.

E-commerce: Electronic commerce is the use of electronic transmission mediums (tele-communications) to engage in the exchange of, including buying and selling of products and services requiring transportation, either physically or digitally, from location to location.

 

INTERNET AND INTRANET

Internet & the www(world wide web) are the ‘enabling mechanisms’ to promote the growth of electronic commerce.It is a type of WAN-Wide Area Network.

Intranet is a type of LAN- Local Area Network (within the different departments of the organization).

Extranet is the mutual link between two organization’s intranet

 

 

 

 
Business Communication MCQs
 
 
1.      By virtue of its Latin origin the word communication is also the source of the English word ---------------.
a)      channel
b)      common
2.      All communication is based on, and is guided by ------------------.
a)      role – relationship
b)      formal – relationship
c)      informal – relationship
  1. The word Communication has been derived from the Latin word ____________.
a)      communiqué
b)      communicare
4.      Communication is ------------------------ way process.
a)      one
b)      two
c)      three
5.      All communication is essentially ------------------ of information or some message.
a)      sharing
b)      avoiding
6.      The structure of communication has two levels --------------- and micro.
a)      macrometro
7.      If the communication system is properly devised the chances of -------------------- are minimized.
a)      misunderstanding
b)      understanding
8.      Organizing human and other resources in the most effective and efficient way in an organization is an integral part of ------------------ communication.
a)      internal
b)      external
9.      One of the INTERNAL purposes of communication is _______________.
a)      controlling performance of employees
b)      determining customer needs
10.  Communication is ---------------------------.
a)      unidirectional
b)      multidirectional
11.  An organization has ------------------ of hierarchy.
a)      One level
b)      many levels
12.  --------------------- stands for a Swedish word meaning a commissioner appointed to investigate the complaints of private citizens against government officials or agencies.
a)      Commission
b)      Ombudsperson
13.  ----------------- communication travels from the people at the bottom and reaches the upper level of the organization.
a)      Downward
b)      Upward
c)      Horizontal
14.  A company newspaper is an example of  crosswise --------- communication.
a)      oral
b)      written
c)      non-verbal
15.  A good example of diagonal oral communication is
a)      lunch hour meetings
b)      bulletin boards
c)      complaint systems
16.        The concept of Ombudperson is used to promote __________.
a)      crosswise communication
b)      upward communication            
c)      horizontal communication
17.        ___________ communication is likely to be filtered or modified because managers may choose to decide what should be conveyed to their employees.
a)      crosswise
b)      downward 
c)      horizontal
 
18.  In this type of chain ‘A’ tells something to ‘B’ who tells it to ‘C’ and so on it goes down the line in …………………………… chain
a)      gossip
b)      probability
c)      single – strand
19.  …………………………… functions as a supplementary or parallel chain of communication
a)      diagonal
b)      grapevine
c)      lateral
 
20.  One of the merits of the grapevine is
a)      speedy transmission
b)      incomplete transmission
21.        ----------- listening refers to when the listener listens keeping in mind the situation of the speaker and shares the speaker’s feelings..
a)      empathic
b)      appreciative
22.        The _________ channel of communication is the most effective.
a)      formal
b)      informal
23.        The _______ channel of communication is also called the ‘grapevine’.
a)      formal
b)      informal
24.              …………………………… refers to individuals  owning  or possessing unique information about their specific jobs
a)      authority structure
b)      job specialization
c)      information ownership
25.              …………………………… communication is a time saving device.
a)      Grapevine
b)      Oral
c)      circular
26.              A tactful manager can very positively handle the grapevine or informal communication by …………………………… listening
a)      Sympathetic
b)      Empathetic
c)      articulate
27.              …………………………… means “half consent” on communication lines.
a)      Speaking
b)      Silence
c)      Murmuring
28.              …………………………… can be defined as communication that involves neither written nor spoken words but takes place without the use of words
a)      Verbal
b)      Nonverbal
c)      Oral
 
29.              The word …………………………… becomes synonymous with the position or point through which the communication passes
a)      channel
b)      dimension
 
30.        Words that have meanings relating directly to the real world and mean for objects, events, etc. have __________ meaning.
a)      connotative
b)      denotative
31.              A …………………………… channel of communication can be defined as means of communication normally controlled by managers.
a)      formal
b)      informal
32.              All communication passes through some …………………………… defined stages or channels
a)      non
b)      well
33.              The …………………………… channel of communication is the most affective.
a)      formal
b)      informal
34.              A …………………………… manager can put the grapevine to great use.
a)      arrogant
b)      resourceful
35.              Both formal and informal channel work …………………………… to each other.
a)      opposite
b)      parallel
36.              Communication dominated by a single person on the behavior of the people is …………………………… way communication.
a)      one
b)      two
37.              Centralized patterns of communication are used for …………………………… tasks.
a)      Complex
b)      Simple
38.              The receiver of message …………………………… the message.
a)      encode
b)      decode
39.              …………………………… words stand for grammatical relationships.
a)      Content
b)      Function
40.              Written English is …………………………… in nature.
a)      flexible
b)      conservative
41.              Expression through words is called ……………………………
a)      globalization
b)      verbalization
35. The corporate world has contributed a large number of words to …………………………… vocabulary.
a)      English
b)      Spanish
36.No oral communication can be effective without proper listening on the part of the receiver.
a)      True
b)      False
37.…………………………… is the most widely used language in the modern world.
a)      Chinese
b)      English
38. It is primarily …………………………… communication that builds up human relationship.
a)      oral
b)      written
39.…………………………… is very important to make oral communication effective.
a)      reaction
b)      listening
40.  Phatic communication helps to …………………………… relationship.
a)      build
b)      break
41.  Presentations are an example of ____________.
a)      informal communication
b)      formal communication
42.  ____________ are examples of informal communication.
a)      interviews
b)      gossip
43.  One of the advantages of oral communication is that it can ___________.
a)      build a healthy climate
b)      lose some vital information
44.  All business organization depends on …………………………… communication.
a)      Oral
b)      Written
45.  The word ‘write’ has been derived from the old English word …………………………… that means to scratch, draw or inscribe.
a)      writan
b)      message
46.  Written communication has ………… cycle than face-to-face communication.
a)      more
b)      fewer
47.  Written communication provided ………. feedback .
a)      instant
b)      delayed
48.  Written communication is ……….time consuming than oral communication.
a)      more
b)      less
49.  Good written communication builds up the image of the organization.
a)      True
b)      False
50.  One of the disadvantages of written communication is that it creates clutter.
a)      True
b)      False
51.  In non-verbal communication, body language is also known as ……………………………
a)      Proxemics
b)      Kinesics
52.  Eyebrows with upper and lower eyelids closed and combined with constricted pupils tell us that the person is ……………………………
a)      happy
b)      angry
53.. …………………………… variation makes speech quite convincing.
a)      Thought
b)      volume
54. One of the limitations of using body language is that it can be
a)      misinterpreted
b)      easily visible
55.Using body language may not be very effective for large gatherings.
a)      True
b)      False
56. The use of body language in communication ______ be wholly relied upon.
a)      can
b)      cannot
56.  Paralanguage tells us a lot about the …………………………… background.
a)      speaker’s
b)      listener’s
57.No oral language is complete without paralanguage
a)      True
b)      False
58. Paralanguage cannot be wholly relied upon because it ___________
a)      indicates the speaker’s educational background
b)      is the non-verbal part of communication
59.Nonfluencies refer to the _______________
a)      sounds/utterances like ‘oh’, ‘uh’, ‘ok’
b)      pauses given by speakers
60 .. …………………………… is the study of how we communicate with the space around us.
a.      Proxemics
b.      Paralanguage
61.Our surroundings, including the color, layout and design occupy an important place in …………………………… communication.
a.       verbal
b.      non – verbal
62. In Proxemics , the innermost space around a person is called the
a)      public space
b)      intimate space
63.  Only …………………………… idea can be communicated through sign language.
a.      simple
b.      complex
64..  Pictures, posters, cartoons, maps and drawings are most popular forms of
a)      visual signs
b)      written communication
60.   Without proper understanding and appreciation of the …… of a particular group of people, communication may fail.
a)      opinion
b)      culture
58. Vast cultural differences may make it difficult for people to communicate.
a)      True
b)      False
59.…………………………… of the workers at any level in an organization is of vital importance for its success.
a)      Promotion
b)      Motivation
60.Effective communication is based on the use of a set of symbols …………………………… understood.
a)      mutually
b)      individually
61.  Assumptions …………………………… communication.
a.      mar (do not allow)
b.      develop
 
62.  For effective communication all efforts should be made to …………………………… noise.
a)      eliminate
b)      create
63.  ………………………….. involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, understanding.
a)      Approach
b)      Communication
c)      Connection
64.  In the process of communication, the element of noise can distort the contents at the transmission stage.
a)      True
b)      False
65.  Effective communication should be
a)      detailed  and lengthy
b)      concise and crisp
66.  To get a favorable response from the receiver , a writer should use the ‘you-attitude’  meaning to view thing from the
a)      reader’s point of view
b)      writer’s point of view
67.Persuasion is important because the writer ‘sells’ his idea like any product.
a)      True
b)      False
  68. .  ‘Enclosure’ is that part of the business letter that indicates to the reader that
a)      some document is being enclosed along with the letter
b)      some document needs to be sent along with the reply
69.  ‘Reference initials’ in a business letter are the initials of the person who
a)      receive and act on the letter
b)      dictate and type the letter 
70. The …………. in the lay out of a business letter is of recent origin
a)      indented form
b)      block form
71. The ‘ letterhead’ in a business letter refers to
a)      the logo, name and address of the company
b)      the person being addressed to
72. In a business letter , CC refers to the people
a)      to whom this letter also is sent
b)      who write this letter
73. Direct approach letters are also called the
a)      bad news letters
b)      good news letters
74. A sales letter persuading the reader to buy the product belongs to the category of
a)      good news letter
b)       persuasive letter
75. To convey ‘unpleasant news’ we use the
a)      indirect approach
b)      persuasive approach
76. Information seeking letters belong to the category of
a)      follow up letters
b)      Enquiry letters
77. Orders can be placed either by writing a letter or by sending an order-form
a)      True
b)      False
78. Complaint letters are written to
a)      place orders
b)      complain about goods found damaged         
79.  Letters written to check on the customer’s credit rating are called
a)      status enquiry letters
b)      collection letter
80. The information exchanged in a status enquiry letter should be kept confidential
a)      True
b)      False
81. Sales letters belong to the category of
a)      direct approach letter
b)      indirect approach letter     
82. Goodwill letters are written to
a)      reach out to customers & turn them to buyers
b)      build up cordial relations with customers
83. Recent changes have been seen where greeting cards are being used in place of goodwill letters
a)      True
b)      False
84. A circular letter is persuasive and tactful because they are
a)      solicited
b)      unsolicited
85. Circular letters belong to the category of
a)      direct approach letters
b)      indirect approach letters
86.  An unsolicited application letter is written when it is
a)      asked for
b)      not asked for
87.  In a curriculum vitae , references stand for people who
a)      would have positive opinion of the application
b)      are related to the applicant
88.  A letter of appointment is written by
a)      the applicant
b)      the employer
c)      the interviewer
89. A  job refusal letter is written by the 
a)      the employer
b)      the applicant
90. Memoranda is derived from the ………. word ‘memorare’.
a)      Latin
b)      English
c)      Spanish
91. ………. are generally pinned on notice boards.
a)      circulars
b)      notices
c)      orders
92. ……….. is the list of points for discussion prepared before a meeting.
a)      minutes of meeting
b)      agenda
c)      circular
93. The agenda is prepared by the
a)      secretary
b)      chairman
c)      members
94. Minutes of the meeting are recorded by the
a)      members
b)      chairman
c)      secretary
95. All important decisions taken at a meeting are recorded in the
a)      agenda
b)      circular
c)      minutes of the meeting
96. Minutes of the meeting are recorded in the
a)      direct speech
b)      indirect speech
97. The …………. report deals with a number of related topics.
a)      schematic
b)      letter-style
98. The components of terms of reference, action taken, findings, conclusions and recommendations belong to the
a)      letter-style report
b)      schematic report
99. A monthly sales report could be a
a)      special report
b)      routine report
100. AIDA - the formula for effective sales communication stands for
a)      appropriate, information, decision, activity
b)      attention, interest, desire, action