•Latin word ‘communicare’ – to impart,to share or to make common(shared by all).
•We share ‘information’.
•“Communication is essentially the ability of one person to make contact with another and to make himself or herself understood.Or if you prefer a slightly more formal version,communication is the process by which meanings are exchanged between people through the use of a common set of symbols.”- John Adair
•Importance and purpose of communication
•Dimensions of communications
•Channels of communications – formal and informal communications
•Patterns of communications
MEANS/MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION
•Media of Communication
* Verbal: 1.Oral
* Non verbal: 1.Sign language : a)Visual signs
b) Audio signs
Factors regarding the use of words
a) The location of meaning in the mind
b) Denotatives vs connotative meaning
Verbal Communication- Oral
•Oral Communication :
* Formal: presentations, meetings,group-
a) face to face - gossip
b) phatic communication- small talk that
breaks the ice
Advantages of Oral Communication
•Provides immediate feedback
•Builds healthy climate
•Is a time-saving device
•Lends personal touch
•Ample scope for immediate clarifications
Disadvantages of Oral Communication
•Waste of time & money
•Not always very effective
•No records for future reference
•No legal validity
•Can lead to misunderstanding
•If lengthy, may lose some vital component
•Difficult to assign responsibility
Ten Commandments of Listening
•Put the talker at ease
•Show the talker that you want to listen
•Empathize with the talker
•Hold your temper
•Go easy on argument & criticism
1) Is a creative activity
2) Time factor involved is more
3) Has fewer cycles
Advantages of Written Communication
•Builds up legal defenses
•Promotes uniformity in policy & procedure
•Gives access to a large audience through mass mailing
•Builds up the organization’s image
•Is accurate & unambiguous
•Facilitates proper assignation of responsibilities
Disadvantages of Written Communication
•Maybe ineffective for poor communicators
•No immediate feedback
•Takes up more man-hours
•Immediate clarifications not possible
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
•Different aspects of communication:
Verbal communication: 7%
Gestures : 55%
Voice tone : 38%
•Non verbal communication: body movements, space, time, voice tone/pitch, environment, audio & visual signs,etc.
•Head, Body shape & Posture
Effective use of Body Language
•Level of listener
•Graceful movement & confident posture
Advantages of Body Language
•Complements verbal communication
•Adds intensity to the process of communication
•Improves the overall atmosphere
Limitations of Body Language
•Cannot be wholly relied on
•Liable to be misinterpreted
•May become ineffective
•Not very effective for large gatherings
Paralanguage – ‘like’ language : the way a speaker verbalizes – how the speaker’s voice sounds or the way the speaker speaks
• Voice : a) Pitch variation
b) Speaking speed
e) Volume variation
Proxemics/Space language, time language & surroundings
•Proxemics – the study of how we communicate with:
a) the space around us
b) the importance we attach to time
c) the importance of physical
Proxemics – Space language
•Outermost – Public Space Language(12 feet)
•2nd – Social Space Language(4 to 12 feet)
•3rd – Personal Space Language(18 in to 4 ft)
•Innermost –Intimate Space Language(touch)
Paralanguage – Others
•Time language : Punctuality
•Surroundings : 1) Color
2) Layout & design
Non Verbal Communication
Sign Language- Visual elements
‘A picture is worth a thousand words’ because we take much of our information – more than 50% - through the gateway of our eyes. (Adair)
eg.Paintings,scrawlings, murals, engravings, posters,cartoons,caricatures,statues, effigies, maps,diagrams,photographs,signs,symbols.
Non Verbal Communication-
Sign Language- Audio elements
Audio or sound signals have been in use since the very beginning of civilization.
eg. Drumbeats,alarm signals(fire alarms, accident/casualty alarm,air raid/assault alarm,VIP motorcade alarms,machine breakdown alarm,watch alarm),
Culture & Communication
•‘Communication is the understanding,not of the visible,but of the invisible and hidden. These hidden and symbolic elements embedded in the culture give meaning to the visible communication process.’- Fred Luthans
•Not ‘melting pot’ but ‘salad bowl’
IMPLICATION OF CULTURE ON COMMUNICATION
1) politeness vs straightforwardness
2) formality vs informality
•Non verbal communication:
1) spatial difference
2) dress sense
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
•Emotional expression & interdependence
Conflict and Negotiation
•Conflict: serious disagreement and argument about something important.
3) clash of goals, interest,etc.
4) difficulty in making a decision
5) inadequate or poor communication
6) incompatible personalities
•Negotiation: a process by which two parties interact to resolve a conflict jointly.
Features: 1) Minimum 2 parties required
2) Predetermined goals
3) Goals may not be shared
4) An expected outcome
5) Belief in satisfactory outcome
6) Willingness to modify position
7) Incompatibility may hinder to modify position
8) Need to understand purpose
Factors important to successful negotiation
•Factors: 1) own interest dependent on other
2) extent of trust or distrust
3) the personalities involved
4) goals & interests of the parties
5) ability of the parties to communicate
Structure of negotiation process
•Negotiation is a four stage process:
2. Exchange of Information
3. Change of Position
•Language of a typical bargaining negotiation:
1. Opening 2.Exchange 3. First Price 4. Planning
5.Discussion of products 6. Bargain 7. Prices
8. Preclose 9. Close
Functional / Linguistic content of Negotiation
‘ Certain functions(content) in negotiation are, systematically accomplished by certain ways of speaking(structure)’- Joyce
Five factors of negotiation process:
GROUP DECISION MAKING
•Discuss – derived from Latin word ‘discutere’ – ‘to shake’ or ‘strike’ (theme/ subject/matter is thoroughly shaken, inquired or examined so as to reach a conclusion or decide upon a course action.
1) Three P’s- Purpose,Planning and Participation
‘Two heads are better than one’
Techniques of Group Decision Making
•Committees & Committee Meetings
•Command Meetings – ‘Groupthink’ & ‘Groupshift’
•Nominal Group Technique
Presentations & Interviews
•Presentation – ‘public speaking’; purpose is defined more precisely & more concretely
•Occasions: 1) launch of new product / service
2) start of a training course / session
3) presenting a new business plan
4) making a proposal for marketing & sales
5) attending conference or seminar
6) diversifying business
STEPS FOR SUCCESSFUL PRESENTATION
•Be clear about the occasion
•Make audience analysis
•Visit the location for an idea
•Plan out the presentation
•Decide the method of presentation
•Rehearse the presentation
•Consider personal aspects
•Use audio visual aids effectively
INTERVIEW : ‘entre vior’(French)
- to glimpse
•Interview: A meeting for obtaining information by questioning a person.
•Features:a) At least 2 participants
b) A definite purpose known to both parties
c) Adequate preparation by both parties
d) Always prearranged
e) A clear exchange of information
Structure of an Interview
•Middle / Main Body
Guidelines for the Interviewee
•Be prepared for the interview
•Have a presentable appearance
•Show interest through body language
•Answer questions correctly & completely
•NEVER try to give false information
•Thank the interviewer
•Don’t hesitate to ask questions
SPEECHES- PREPARED vs IMPROMPTU
•“Speech is power; speech is to persuade, to convert , to compel.” – Emerson
Guidelines for preparing a speech:
•The six cardinal questions
•Be clear and organized
•Furnish concrete details
•Cultivate effortless grace and naturalness
•Enrich your mental equipment
•Mind your non-verbal language
•Be imaginative,just don’t use facts and figures only
•Control your emotions
•Share your expertise with the audience
•Latin word ‘advetere’ meaning advert (to turn or pay attention to)
•Advertise : ‘to describe or present(a product,organization,idea,etc.)in some medium of communication in order to induce the public to buy,support,or approve of it’.
KINDS OF ADVERTISEMENT
•Informative advertisement-to educate consumers by giving them information about goods and services available
•Persuasive and competitive advertisement-to persuade consumers to buy one particular manufacturer’s brand of a commodity rather than competitor’s.
•Institutional or Reputation advertising- aims to project the image of an organization.
Salient features of Institutional Advertising
•A forceful title
•An introduction to the organization
•Highlights the achievements of the organization
•States the organization’s commitment to public
•Repeated emphasis on the brand/name of the organization
Basic Elements of an advertisement copy
•Audience resolve to act
Barriers and Breakdown in Communication
Breakdown can arise at the following levels:
•The sender’s level in
i) formulating thought/idea/message
ii) encoding the message
•The receiver’s level in
i) receiving the message
ii) decoding the message
iii) understanding/ interpreting the message
•Transmission level – NOISE
•Feedback/ reaction level
Other barriers of communication
•Lack of planning
•Wrong/ unclarified assumptions
•Loss by transmission
•Insufficient period for adjustment
•Offensive style of communication
Guidelines for Effective Communication
•Clarity of Purpose
•Common Set of Symbols
•Focus on needs of the receiver
•Avoid connotations & ambiguities
•Proper use of body language
Essentials of Effective Correspondence
•Clarity of goal
•Public relations aspect
•Care for culture
The layout of a Business Letter
The Business Letter is a vital tool of business correspondence.
It is basically the ‘Image Carrier’ / ‘Image Builder’ and hence should be carefully prepared.
The quality of stationary, arrangement of printed matter, the envelope,stamp & seal - all convey the image & attitude of the organization.
Businesses might be expanded proficiently or simply be lost using this important tool.
Format of a Business Letter
•Body of the letter
•Signature block / slot
•CC / Carbon copy notation
Planning the letter
Steps to plan the letter:
•Determine the main aim of writing the letter (what & how clearly do we want to convey?
•Assess if any secondary aim can be accomplished
•Assemble all relevant information
•Arrange the points in order of importance
•Assess the reaction of the receiver
•Assess how to improve the situation through the letter
The three approaches
•Middle ground or persuasive approach
Types of letters
•Good news letter
•Direct request letter
Salient aspects of the structure of a business letter
•An attention getting opening
•Introduction of the central idea
•Present convincing information
•Clarify action that needs to be taken
Kinds of Business Letters
1) Routine-(enquiries, quotations, orders, payment)
2) Special purpose(circulars, personnel, agencies, travel)
•Sales letters(voluntary offers, traveler’s employment)
•Problem letters(complaint, concessions,overdue, accounts)
•Goodwill letters (greetings,thanks, congratulations, sympathy)
Enquiries & Replies
•Information seeking letters providing some information about the writer
•A direct approach letter
•Opening sets the tone of urgency
•Close of the letter conveys writer’s expectations for a quick response
Placing and Fulfilling Orders
•These letters are a result of enquiries & their replies
•May not always contain details about the product if it is a routine buyer
•An order from is used & a cover letter is sent along with
Complaints & Follow-up letters
•Written to convey dissatisfaction regarding damaged or poor quality of product, delay in supplying, wrong invoicing, poor after-sales service, etc
•Guidelines for drafting complaints pg 344
•Guidelines for drafting replies to complaints pg 345
•Written to check on a customer’s credit rating/worthiness (amount which a credit agency feels a customer should be allowed to borrow)
•Such correspondence should be treated in strict confidence
•Written to collect payments due from customers
•Should be tackled with utmost care & cordiality
1. 3 Mild reminders (will pay stage)
2. 4 Persuasive letters (should pay stage)
3. 3 Last resort letters (must pay stage)
Sales Letters or Offers
•The primary aim of such a letter is publicity or to reach out to a large number of people interested in a particular product/ service & turn them into buyers
•Since these are unsolicited, they have to be persuasive or powerful enough to make the recipient act, thus are Indirect Approach letters
Goodwill Letters , Greetings, etc.
•These letters help retain customers after they have been won over
•Aims at building up cordial and good relations, uphold the company image & establish positive human relations
•Recent changes have been witnessed wherein ‘Greeting cards’ for the occasion are now being used.
•Also called ‘Memorandum’; are unsolicited & addressed to a number of persons or intended for general circulation; Should have mass appeal
•An information giving letter, so needs careful planning; should be simple & precise
•Since it is unsolicited, it has to be persuasive, tactful & convincing
•Should have all features of an Indirect Approach letter
APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT
•You need Resume & Application Letter to apply for a job
•An Application Letter is
1) like a Sales letter
2) It should be persuasive in approach & should induce action from the recipient
3) Can be Solicited or Unsolicited
Format of Applications for employment
Application for employment could be divided into categories as follows:
•Application letter or letter-style application
•Application enumerating the particulars of the applicant’s qualifications
•Applications in the form of a covering letter accompanying a resume
•Application on a prescribed form
The Curriculum Vitae / Re’sume’
The following details should be included:
•Experience- in the Functional or Chronological order
•Additional information- about languages known, hobbies, etc
Other employment related correspondence
•Letter calling a candidate for written test
•Letter calling a candidate for interview
•Thank you letter following the interview
•Follow-up letters to an application
•Employer to referee
•Letter of appointment
•Job acceptance / consent letter
•Job refusal letter
•Letter informing non- selection
•Derived from Latin word ‘memorare’ meaning ‘to mention’ or ‘tell’
•Definition: ‘a written statement that you prepare specially for a person or committee in order to give them information about a particular matter.’ OR
‘ a short official note that you write to a person or to several people, especially people who you work with.’
Notices, Circulars and Orders
These are other important forms of communication within an organization.
•Notices: These are generally pinned on notice boards & are a popular & effective way of reaching out to the general staff.May require the signature of staff.
•Circulars: These are a more formal nature of communication meant to bring to the notice of a certain audience matters of importance to the organization.
•Orders:These are issued by superiors & communicate matters relating to certain rights,withdrawing rights,imposing restrictions,making postings/transfers,promotions,retrenchment, annual increments, disciplinary actions,etc.
Agenda & Minutes
For organizing a meeting , a definite schedule is followed:
•Circular: a circular is sent to all who need to attend the meeting , inviting points they would want to be discussed.
•Agenda: Is prepared by the secretary , & includes points sent by all; is normally distributed to all concerned before the meeting
•Minutes of the meeting:is recorded by the secretary & includes all important decisions made at the meeting. It is confirmed at the next meeting & sent as records.
•Since these are important records of meetings where policy decisions are made, these need to be recorded with accuracy.
•Care should be taken to cut out all irrelevant information & report only important decisions.
•Minutes should be recorded in the indirect speech and past tense.
Report Writing - 1
Report: A report is a statement describing what has happened.
It is written in a clear , informative way, often drawing conclusions, making recommendations & suggesting course of action.
Types of reports:
•Letter-style report:It covers mainly one topic, which is often unsolicited and which is used to make requests , pass necessary information, suggest actions, or bring some matter to the attention of other members of the staff.
•Schematic report:It deals with a number of related topics, is usually requested by a senior management executive , and is presented in a particular format under specific headings.
Technique of report writing
Depending on the subject matter, a report may be written either in the logical sequence or chronological order.
Guidelines for writing a report:
•Assemble the material
•Plan the report
•Draft the report
•Edit the report
Format of Reports
Letter style report:
•Is usually written on the company letter-head
•Is used for internal communication
•Carries no salutation but only a signature
•Terms of reference
Report-Writing - 2
Market Survey Report can be :
•Routine vs Special reports
•Informative vs Interpretive reports
•Individual vs Committee reports
•Written vs Oral reports
•Formal vs Informal reports
•Solicited vs Unsolicited reports
Guidelines for writing a market survey report:
•Should be written very carefully after a serious study of the position of the product.
•Should begin with references to the letter asking for the report
•The terms of reference must be stated
•Should include the work done & the methodology adopted
•Should clearly state the causes for the situation at that period
•Should include constructive suggestions for improvement of the situation
•Should present all facts in a clear & unclouded perspective without any biases
•Should be accompanied by a covering letter or letter of transmittal
A proposal is a persuasive offer to complete a task, submitted either voluntarily or in response to a request or an advertisement.
It is like a report and can be short or long but unlike a report, it may be sent to an expert or a review committee for evaluation and recommendation concerning the benefits of the proposed services, products, etc.
TYPES OF PROPOSALS
•BUSINESS PROPOSALS- consists of
a) a letter of transmittal or prefatory note- it
follows the AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire,
Action) formula of effective sales
b) body of proposal with information on
project team(if necessary), scope of
services, cost of equipment, etc.
Press Releases & Notices
Press releases are prepared to convey and inform some important information publicly through the newspaper.
Guidelines to prepare an effective press release:
•Substantial information e) Company image
•Clarity f) Suitable heading
•Brevity g) Formatting
Press / Public Notices
A press / public notice is an announcement giving important information to all concerned.
The key points of a press/public are:
•Justification of action taken/expected
Technology of Business Communication
Business and Communication have always been going on together as they have a symbolic relationship.
The ingredients of communication have remained the same but what has changed are the means/ media/technology of the transmission of message/ information and feedback between the sender and the receiver during the last hundred years.
The Three ‘Waves’
•First Wave or agrarian societies communication passed mouth-to-ear & face-to-face with small groups.
•Second Wave gave rise to post offices, telegraphs, telephones,newspaper,magazines,movies,radio and television.
•Third Wave reflects the need of the emerging post-mass-production economy.
•FAX ( Facsimile)
•Citizen Band Radio
•Electronic Bulletin Board
•MIS – Management Information Systems – the term is used when information technology is applied to the communication process in organizations.
Telegram, Telex, FAX Messages and Electronic Mail
These are quick and cheap means of sending messages developed over the years.
•Telegram: Short & precise message sent through post offices.
•Telex: Lengthy messages could be sent using the teleprinting machines.
•FAX: Same message is copied to recipient
•Internet & Electronic mail: Instant communication – Uses Information sharing
•Sending and receiving messages
•Instantaneous Personal Communication
INTERNET & E-COMMERCE
•Internet : Short form of INTER connected NET works. It is a collection of computer networks,tens of thousands of computers and millions of users,all connected to make the world’s largest network.
•E-commerce: Electronic commerce is the use of electronic transmission mediums (tele-communications) to engage in the exchange of, including buying and selling of products and services requiring transportation, either physically or digitally, from location to location.
INTERNET AND INTRANET
•Internet & the www(world wide web) are the ‘enabling mechanisms’ to promote the growth of electronic commerce.It is a type of WAN-Wide Area Network.
•Intranet is a type of LAN- Local Area Network (within the different departments of the organization).
•Extranet is the mutual link between two organization’s intranet
Business Communication MCQs 1. By virtue of its Latin origin the word communication is also the source of the English word ---------------. a) channel b) common 2. All communication is based on, and is guided by ------------------. a) role – relationship b) formal – relationship c) informal – relationship